There are 2 parts to the verse and you are ignoring the 2nd. The verse speaks of disbelievers requesting miracles in order to believe, and God being merciful in not answering their request to avoid them the same faith as the people of Thamud who did the same and were met with destruction. This means it is God's mercy that prevents Him from answering their request because the sending of signs is not meant at destroying the people (in case a sign comes at their request as a condition to believe) but at warning them and make them mend their ways and this is proved through the example of Pharao. While you think it serves your position, the fact is it doesnt because the signs (3 to Pharao in particular and 6 to the Egyptians in general) to Pharao were not given to Moses as per anybody's request such as in the example of Thamud above, but even before Moses went to meet Pharao whom he was told to warn and make him mend his ways 43:48"And We did not show them a sign but it was greater than its like, and We overtook them with chastisement that they may turn". These were warning signs, just as 17:59 says "and We do not send signs but to make (men) fear" and when God judged that every possible warning was properly conveyed and that nothing more can be done to make them mend their ways, He imposed His judgement on the rejectors of His prophet.
As for the nation of Jesus, your attempt to use the argument that punishement did not befall them in his lifetime to counter the fact that all throughout prophetic history God destroyed those who rejected the prophets sent with manifest signs, does not hold. The Quran states, in several places that God's punishement befalls the nation of rejectors on its appropriate time, whether or not the prophet is caused to die prior to the descent of the scourge 13:40-2,36:26-32,40:77 because 58:21"Allah has written down: I will most certainly prevail, I and My messengers; surely Allah is Strong, Mighty".
Physical destruction and abasement came on them soon after Jesus' departure. The Temple of Jerusalem was razed to the ground as Jesus predicted in Matt23,24,Lk23 (Quran 17:7,3:56) the Israelites were slaughtered in large numbers women and children included, by the Romans and many more were enslaved and sold in the markets, as Jesus prophesied lk21:24 and soonafter they were scattered yet again throughout the earth and for the next 1900 years they would have no authority in this land. The area of the Temple became a place were the inhabitants of Jerusalem, including the Christians and Jews threw their garbage, in accordance with Jesus' prophecy that not a stone would be left standing on another, for the Israelites' rejection of him Luke21 and as a confirmation that should they turn away from the commands of God, God Himself will uproot them from the land He has settled them in to assert their righteousness, turn their sacred shrine into an object of ridicule among the nations 2Chronicles7:19-22.
On 16:104, look at the verses surrounding it. It is speaking of people who strongly, willfuly reject guidance when it comes to them. These are kuffar, or disbelievers. It has nothing to do with any of your examples.
Regarding 64:9, once more, a good act from a Quranic point of view is something God commanded or in accordance with the principles of this Book. The Quran repeatedly speaks of how any act devoid of this principle by those who willfuly reject those very principles, will remain "lost" in this present world and will not be accounted for in the Hereafter. This is similar to what Jesus said in the NT in Matthew 6 about those who do "good" without any perspective of the Hereafter (not as God commanded) such as praying, fasting or giving to charity only to be seen by men that they will have no reward in the Hereafter and that they will be paid in full in this world only, meaning the deed will not be considered as "good" in the Hereafter.
Similarly, believing in Allah does not merely imply believing He exists but believing in Him as is taught in His Book. The Quran gives many examples, including those of the Christians or Arab pagans who do not believe in God as they ought to due to their rejection of the way taught in God's Book, the Quran. So when 64:9 describes the succesful in the Hereafter as those "who believe in God and do good", it excludes the above mentionned groups and this is clearly attested by the direct context of the verse which you are trying to isolate and distort.
There is a reason why the Quran speaks of mawazin/scales in the Hereafter 23:102-3. The plural indicates there will be many criteria of evaluation and measurements to which a deed will be compared to, for it to be weighty in the spiritual realm.
As for the people to whom Islamic guidance did not come or who did not willfuly reject it, and who have their own beliefs according to which they act in this world, the Quran presents an exchange between the prophet Musa and Firon, explains that Allah alone decrees the destiny of those who were not reached by divine guidance for He alone knows their motives and understands the cause of their choices, and He alone can appreciate their spiritual merits and demerits 20:48-55,17:54"Your Lord knows you best; He will have mercy on you if He pleases, or He will chastise you if He pleases" 25:58"and Sufficient is He as being aware of the faults of His servants". God then adds to Moses' answer that common sense and the observation of nature must lead a person to cognizance of a unique Creator. God has created in man the innate ability to come to such conclusion through reason and observation. The Quran states that all humans have, ingrained in their souls, a basic guidance to understand the great evils and make the essential correct spiritual choices so each person is at least responsible for his response to that basic guidance. This innate guidance must be nurtured or it dies and all humans therefore will be held responsible for at least failing or succeeding in hearkening the basic calls of their ingrained God-consciousness 7:172-3,75:2,91:7-10.
So for these groups to be included among the succesful in the Hereafter, described in 64:9 as "whoever believes in Allah and does good", then their belief in God will have to be in accordance with their innate guidance and common sense, and the nature of their deeds may not conflict with their innate capacity to understand good and evil. This means that in any case, a deed is only good because it is in accordance with God's revealed principles.
Concerning your vague reference to 30:30 and Allah's fitra, it doesnt say people are born Muslims, rather that originaly, every human being is made spiritually upright, naturally inclining to the Truth and this is due to the ingrained guidance already spoken of above, which every person is responsible to nurture and develop.
Edited by Nad_M, 01 October 2012 - 07:11 AM.