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The Grandson of George and Temporary Marriage

Islamic Salvation

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Who is Ibn Jurayj?

Ibn Jurayj, ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, was an early Meccan scholar considered to be from the Taba’ Tabi’ina. According to the sources he was born in the city in 80/699 and died in 150/767. His grandfather Jurayj (George) had been a slave of Byzantine origin who belonged to a woman of the Meccan Khālid b. Asīd clan, part of the Banū Umayya of Quraysh. Either Jurayj or his son was set free, and thus became a client (mawlā) of this clan, a legal status that their offspring inherited.

Despite his affiliation with Umayya, there is evidence that he had excessive love for the Ahl al-Bayt, as sometimes happens when a good fruit is borne of an accursed tree.

محمد بن إسحاق، ومحمد بن المنكدر، وعمرو ابن خالد الواسطي وعبد الملك بن جريح، والحسين بن علوان الكلبي هؤلاء من رجال العامة، إلا أن لهم ميلا ومحبة شديدة، وقد قيل إن الكلبي كان مستورا ولم يكن مخالفا

al-Kashshi says: Muhammad b. Ishaq, Muhammad b. al-Munkadir, Amr b. Khalid al-Wasiti, Abd al-Malik b. Jurayh (sic. Jurayj) and al-Husayn b. Ulwan al-Kalbi, these were men from the `Amma (proto-Sunnis), except that they had an inclination and excessive love (for the Ahl al-Bayt), and it is said that al-Kalbi was hiding (his faith) and was not of the Mukhalifin. 

 

Praise for Ibn Jurayj

Many famous narrators narrated from him, among them Ibn Ulayya and Yahya b. Said al-Qattan, and the authors of the Sihah included his narrations in their compilations. 

قال الذهبي: هو الإمام، العلاّمة، الحافظ، شيخ الحرم، وصاحب التصانيف، وأوّل من دوّن العلم بمكّة

al-Dhahabi: He is the Imam, the Allama, the Hafidh, the Shaykh of the sacred precinct, the author of works, and the first one to write down knowledge in Makka.

I say: the book of Ibn Jurayj has a very good claim at being the first written compilation of Hadith predating the Muwatta of Malik

وعن عطاء بن أبي رباح: إنّه: سيّد شباب أهل الحجاز

Ata b. Abi Rabah: He is the leader of the youths of the people of Hijaz.

وعن علي بن المديني: الإسناد يدور على ستّة، فذكرهم وذكر ابن جريج

Ali b. al-Madini: the Isnad revolves around six, so he mentioned them and he included in these Ibn Jurayj.

وعن يحيى بن سعيد: كنّا نسمّي كتب ابن جريج كتب الأمانة

Yahya b. Said: we used to call the books of Ibn Jurayj “the books of trust”.

وعن يحيى بن معين: ابن جريج ثقة في كلّ ما روي عنه في الكتاب

Yahya b. Main: Ibn Jurayj was Thiqa in all that which is narrated from him in the book.

أضاف الذهبي: الرجل في نفسه ثقة. وقد كان شيخ الحرم بعد الصحابة: عطاء ومجاهد،وخلفهما: قيس بن سعد وابن جريج، ثمّ تفرّد بالإمامة ابن جريج فدوّن العلم، وحمل عنه الناس، وعليه تفقّه مسلم بن خالد الزنجي، وتفقّه بالزنجي الإمام الشافعي

Al-Dhahabi concludes: the man is Thiqa in of himself, and the Shaykhs of the sacred precinct i.e. Makka after the Sahaba were - Ata and Mujahid, and after them came - Qays b. Sa’d and Ibn Jurayj, then he assumed sole leadership and wrote down knowledge, and the people carried it from him, and under him tutelaged Muslim b. Khalid al-Zanji and tutelaged under this al-Zanji the Imam al-Shafi’i.

وروايات ابن جريج وافرة في الكتب الستّة وفي مسند أحمد ومعجم الطبراني الأكبر، وفي الأجزاء

And the narrations of Ibn Jurayj are aplenty in the six books and in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and in the Mu’jam of al-Tabarani and etc.

قال عبدالرزّاق: كنت إذا رأيت ابن جريج علمت أنّه يخشى الله

Abd al-Razzaq said: if you saw Ibn Jurayj you could tell that he feared Allah.

[Siyar al-A’lam al-Nubala 6/333]

قدم ابن جريج إلى العراق قبل موته وحدّث بالبصرة وأكثروا عنه

وعن يحيى بن سعيد: كان ابن جريج صدوقاً

Ibn Jurayj travelled to Iraq before his death and narrated in Basra and its denizens narrated a lot from him.

Yahya b. Said: Ibn Jurayj was truthful.

[Tahdhib al-Kamal 12/55]

Thus, as we can see - Ibn Jurayj is unanimously considered Thiqa according to the Sunnis, and he was depended upon by the Hadith scholars and the narrators, and he was truthful and God-fearing, despite all that he ruled on the permissibility of Mut’a and acted upon it.

قال التستري: وكما روى ـ اى ابن جريج ـ حلّيّة المتعة كالأماميّة، كذلك روى كون الأذان من وحي السماء لا من رؤيا عبدالله بن زيد

al-Tustari says: And just as Ibn Jurayj narrated the permissibility of Mut’a as the Imamiyya did, similarly, he narrated that Adhan was a heavenly revelation and not a dream seen by Abdallah b. Zayd [as the common Sunni view holds]. [Qamus al-Rijal 7/12]

 

Proof that Ibn Jurayj permitted Mut’a

قال الذهبي: هو أحد الأعلام الثقات... وهو في نفسه مجمع على ثقته مع كونه قد تزوّج نحواً من سبعين امراة نكاح متعة. كان يرى الرخصة في ذلك، وكان فقيه أهل مكّة في زمانه

al-Dhahabi: He was one of the most-knowledgeable scholars and from among the Thiqat … and he is in of himself agreed upon as far as his trust-worthiness is concerned despite having married approximately seventy women in Mut’a marriages. He considered it as permissible. And he was the jurist of the people of Makka in his time. [Mi’zan al-I’tidal 2/659]

وقال محمد بن عبدالله بن عبدالحكم: سمعتُ الشافعي يقول: استمتع ابن جريج بتسعين امراة، حتى إنّه كان يحتقن في الليل بأُوقية شيرج طلباً للجماع

Muhammad b. Abdallah b. Abd al-Hakim: I heard al-Shafi’I saying: Ibn Jurayj made Mut’a with 90 women, such that he would apply in the nights sesame oil to help him in intercourse. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala 6/333, and in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib 6/360: seventy women instead of ninety].

قال جرير: ... أمّا ابن جريج فإنّه أوصى بنيه بستّين امراة، وقال لا تزوّجوا بهنّ فإنّهنّ اُمّهاتكم وكان يرى المتعة

Jarir:  … As for Ibn Jurayj then he willed to his son [the names of] seventy women and said: do not marry them for they are your mothers and he used to accept Mut’a. [Ta’rikh Baghdad 7/255, Sharh al-Zarqani 8/76]

الذهبي: و قيل: إنّه عهد إلى أولاده في أسمائهنّ لئلاّ يغلط أحدٌ منهم ويتزوّج واحدة ممّا نكح أبوه بالمتعة

al-Dhahabi: and it is said: he (Ibn Jurayj) gave his sons the names (of those women) so that they do not fall into the mistake of ever marrying a woman their father had married via Mut’a. [Siyar A’lam al-Nubala 6/331]

الماوردي: و حكى عن... وابن جريج والإماميّة جوازه ...

al-Mawardi: And it is attributed to … and Ibn Jurayj and the Imamiyya its permissibility … [al-Hawi al-Kabir 11/449]



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The Narration of Ismail b. Fadhl al-Hashimi

In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni narrates a very interesting Hadith in which the Imam directs one of his companions i.e. Ismail - to Ibn Jurayj to learn about Mut'a. By this - the Imam wished to acknowledge that Ibn Jurayj's stance about Mut'a was accurate. 

[-/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن إسماعيل بن الفضل الهاشمي، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن المتعة، فقال: إلق عبد الملك بن جريح فسله عنها فإن عنده منها علما، فلقيته فأملى علي منها شيئا كثيرا في استحلالها، فكان فيما روى لي ابن جريح، قال: ليس فيها وقت ولا عدد إنما هي بمنزلة الإماء يتزوج منهن كم شاء، وصاحب الأربع نسوة يتزوج منهن ما شاء بغير ولي ولا شهود، فإذا انقضى الاجل بانت منه بغير طلاق ويعطيها الشئ اليسير، وعدتها حيضتان، وإن كانت لا تحيض فخمسة وأربعون يوما، فأتيت بالكتاب أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فعرضت عليه، فقال: صدق وأقر به

[8/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Umar b. Udhayna from Ismail b. al-Fadhl al-Hashimi who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about Mut’a so he said: go and see Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj and ask him about it for he has some knowledge about it, so I met him and he (Ibn Jurayj) dictated a lot of material in regards its permissibility to me, so from among that which Ibn Jurayj transmitted to me included: it (Mut’ah) has no fixed duration nor limit in number [of partners with whom you can contract], it has the same status as [union with] slave girls, a man marries with them as he likes, even someone who already has four wives can marry as many as he wishes, without [permission from] guardian required nor witnesses, so when the period terminates she departs from him without divorce, and he gives her some small thing [as her Mahr], and her Idda is two menstrual cycles, and if she does not menstruate then forty five days, so I came with the book to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام  and presented its contents to him, so he said: he is truthful, and he agreed with it.

- What is to be noted is how similar this is to what the Imamiyya hold even to this day.

 

Was this View of Ibn Jurayj based on Personal Opinion?

This view of Ibn Jurayj was not based on personal opinion but because he did not believe that the allowance by the prophet was abrogated.

He himself narrates Umar’s decision to annul Mut’a from his teacher Ata.

عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج عن عطاء قال: لاول من سمعت منه المتعة صفوان بن يعلى، قال: أخبرني عن يعلى أن معاوية استمتع بامرأة بالطائف، فأنكرت ذلك عليه، فدخلنا على ابن عباس، فذكر له بعضنا، فقال له: نعم، فلم يقر في نفسي، حتى قدم جابر ابن عبد الله، فجئناه في منزله، فسأله القوم عن أشياء، ثم ذكروا له المتعة، فقال: نعم، استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأبي بكر، وعمر، حتى إذا كان في آخر خلافة عمر استمتع عمرو بن حريث بامرأة - سماها جابر فنسيتها - فحملت المرأة، فبلغ ذلك عمر، فدعاها فسألها، فقالت: نعم، قال: من أشهد؟ قال عطاء: لا أدري قالت: أمي، أم وليها، قال: فهلا غيرهما

Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj from Ata who said: the first time I heard about Mut’a was from Safwan b. Ya’la, he reported to me from Ya’la that Muawiya made Mut’a with a woman in Taif, so I rejected that from him, then we entered upon Ibn Abbas, so one of us broached this topic, so he said: yes [it is permitted], but that did not comfort my heart, until Jabir b. Aballah came so we went to his house, so the group asked him about different things, then they asked about Mut’a so he said: yes, we did it in the time of the messenger of Allah, and Abi Bakr and Umar, until the last period of the Khilafa of Umar when Amr b. Hurayth did Mut’a with a woman – Jabir mentioned her name but I have forgotten it – so the woman became pregnant, and that was reported to Umar, so he called her and questioned her, she said: yes [it happened via Mut’a], he said: who witnessed it [the marriage]? Ata said – I forgot whether she said: my mother – or my guardian, he (Umar) said: did no one else do so (witness it)?

عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: استمتعنا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حتى نهي عمرو بن حريث 

Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me saying: I heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: we the companions of the prophet contracted Mut’a marriages until Amr b. Hurayth was forbidden it [by Umar].

عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير أنه سمع جابر بن عبد الله يقول: قدم عمرو بن حريث من الكوفة فاستمتع بمولاة، فأتي بها عمر وهي حبلى، فسألها، فقالت: استمتع بي عمرو بن حريث، فسأله، فأخبره بذلك أمرا ظاهرا ... فذلك حين نهى عنها، قال ابن جريج: وأخبرني من أصدق أن عليا قال بالكوفة: لولا ما سبق من رأي عمر بن الخطاب - لامرت بالمتعة ، ثم ما زنا إلا شقي

Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me that he heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: Amr b. Hurayth came from Kufa and contracted Mut’a with a slave girl, so Umar brought her forward while she was pregnant and questioned her, she said: Amr b. Hurayth made Mut’a with me, so he asked him (Amr) and he admitted it openly … so that’s when he forbade it.

Ibn Jurayj said: reported to me the one I consider truthful that Ali said in al-Kufa: If Umar b. al-Khattab’s decision had not preceded I would have reinstated Mut’a again, then no one would have committed adultery except the wretched.  

 

Note: These three narrations are from the Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani, the famous Yamani Muhadith who took a lot of narrations from Ibn Jurayj thus preserving Fiqhi positions  of the ancient Meccan school of Jurisprudence as taught by Ata and Ibn Jurayj. For more on this refer to Harald Motzki’s book - Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools.

In it, Motzki proposes to analyse the authenticity of the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211/826), in particular the legal traditions from Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/767), which often refer to his teacher Ata b. Abi Rabah (d. 115/633). His major methodological innovation is in drawing up a range of indices, by which he seeks to determine if a particular name in an isnād is associated with a genuine authorial voice, thus demonstrating the implausibility of fabrication.

Motzki argues that on the basis of these indices we have good reason to believe that the material in the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq that is ascribed to Ata b. Abi Rabah via Ibn Jurayj is an accurate representation of the teachings taken down by an honest and assiduous legal student from his well-respected master, a successor, who lived most of his life within the first Islamic century.

 

Did Ibn Jurayj change his Stance?

Some Sunni scholars claim that Ibn Jurayj changed his stance and came over to the position that it is prohibited. They use the following as evidence:

نسبهُ الشوكاني إلى أبي عوانة ـ فقال: فقد روى أبوعوانة في صحيحه عن ابن جريج أنّه قال لهم بالبصرة: اشهدوا أني قد رجعت عنها

Al-Shawkani quotes Abu Awana that Ibn Jurayj said to them in Basra: I bear witness that I have recanted from that (its permissibility). [Nayl al-Awtar 6/136]

But this is Mursal, because Ibn Jurayj died in 150 AH, while Abu Awana was born on the year 230 AH, so how can he narrate from Ibn Jurayj without any intermediary!

 

This was the position of Ibn Jurayj’s teacher Ata as well 

ابن حزم: فيمن ثبت على تحليل المتعة بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)... ومن التابعين... عطاء

Ibn Hazm: Those who remained steadfast in permitting Mut’a after the messenger of Allah … and from among the Tabi’in - Ata [al-Muhalla 9/519; al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama 7/571]

الكرابيسي: قال بنكاح المتعة... جماعة من التابعين، منهم: عطاء

al-Karabisi: Those who agreed with Mut’a … a number of the Tabi’in including: Ata [Masail al-Saghaniyya Pg. 37]

 

Ata had to resort to Taqiyya to avoid Persecution

الفاكهي: حدّثنا يعقوب بن حميد، قال: ثنا عبدالله بن الحارث المخزومي، قال: حدّثني غير واحد، أنّ محمد بن هشام سأل عطاء بن أبي رباح عن متعة النساء، فحدّثه فيها ولم يربها بأساً قال (فقدم) القاسم بن محمد قال: فأرسل إليه محمد بن هشام، فسأله فقال: لا ينبغي هي حرام قال ابن هشام: عطاء حدّثني فيها وزعم أن لا بأس بها! فقال القاسم: سبحان الله، ما أرى عطاءً يقول هذا قال: فأرسل إليه ابن هشام، فلمّا جاءه قال: يا أبامحمد حدّثَ القاسم الذي حدّثتني في المتعة فقال: ما حدّثتك فيها شيئاً قال ابن هشام: بلى قد حدّثتني فقال: ما فعلت، فلّما خرج القاسم قال له عطاء صدقت أخبرتك، ولكن كرهت أن أقولها بين يدي القاسم، فيلعنني ويلعنني أهل المدينه

al-Fakihi: narrated to us Ya’qub b. Humayd who said: Abdallah b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi said: narrated to me more than  one that Muhammad b. Hisham asked Ata b. Abi Rabah about Mut’a of the women, so he narrated to him in regards that and did not see in it any wrong, then al-Qasim b. Muhammad came, so Muhammad b. Hisham sen for him and asked him, so he said: it should not be done - it is prohibited, Ibn Hisham said: Ata narrated to me about it and claimed that there was nothing wrong in it, so al-Qasim said: glory be to Allah! I can’t imagine Ata would have said that, he said: so Ibn Hisham sent for him, so when he (Ata) had come he said: O Aba Muhammad, narrate to al-Qasim what you narrated to me about Mut’a, he said: I did not narrate to you about it anything, Ibn Hisham said: yes you did narrate to me, he said: no I did not, so when al-Qasim had left Ata said to him: you are right I did narrate to you, but I did not like to say it in front of al-Qasim for he will curse me and the people of Madina will curse me. [Akhbar Makka 3/14]

 

Conclusion

I quote a narration in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi in which Ibn Jurayj is narration from Abu Ja’far al-Baqir the particulars of the Ghusl of the prophet as Baraka.

عن عبد الملك بن جريج قال سمعت محمد بن علي ابا جعفر قال غسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثلاثا بالسدر وغسل وعليه قميص وغسل من بئر يقال له الغرس بقباء كانت لسعد بن خيثمة وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب منها وولى سفلته علي والفضل محتضنه والعباس يصب الماء ...

Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj who said: I heard Muhammad b. Ali Aba Ja’far saying: the prophet was washed thrice using Sidr [jujube], and he was washed while he had a long shirt on, and he was washed using the well-water called al-Ghurs found in Quba belonging to Sa’d b. Khaythama – and the prophet used to drink water from it, and Ali undertook thewashing of the lower body while al-Fadhl the upper-body, and al-Abbas was pouring water.

 

Reference: al-Zawwaj al-Muwaqqat inda al-Sahaba wa al-Tabi’in (by Najm al-Diin al-Tabasi)

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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    • Salam: Brother Islamic Salvation: Can you please explain and share with us the hadith that relate to this ayat? (2:78)    وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ   this is from tafsir as Safi (can you please translate?)
      قال عليه السلام: قال رجل للصادق عليه السلام فإذا كان هؤلاء العوام من اليهود لا يعرفون الكتاب الا بما يسمعونه من علمائهم لا سبيل لهم إلى غيره فكيف ذمّهم بتقليدهم و القبول من علمائهم و هل عوام اليهود الا كعوامنا يقلّدون علمائهم فان لم يجز لأولئك القبول من علمائهم لم يجز لهؤلاء القبول من علمائهم فقال عليه السلام بين عوامنا و علمائنا و بين عوام اليهود و علمائهم فرق من جهة و تسوية من جهة أما من حيث استووا فان اللَّه قد ذمّ عوامنا بتقليدهم علماءهم كما قد ذمّ عوامهم و أمّا من حيث افترقوا فلا، قال بيّن لي ذلك يا بن رسول اللَّه قال إنّ عوام اليهود كانوا قد عرفوا علمائهم بالكذب الصريح و بأكل الحرام و الرّشا و بتغيير الأحكام عن واجبها بالشفاعات و العنايات و المصانعات «1» و عرفوهم بالتعصب الشديد الذي يفارقون به أديانهم و إنهم إذا تعصبوا أزالوا حقوق من تعصبوا عليه و اعطوا ما لا يستحقه من تعصبوا له من اموال غيرهم و ظلموهم من أجلهم و عرفوهم يقارفون المحرّمات و اضطروا بمعارف قلوبهم إلى أن من فعل ما يفعلونه فهو فاسق لا يجوز ان يصدق على اللَّه و لا على الوسائط بين الخلق و بين اللَّه فلذلك ذمّهم لما قلّدوا من قد عرفوا و من قد علموا أنّه لا يجوز قبول خبره و لا تصديقه في حكايته و لا العمل بما يؤديه إليهم عمّن لم يشاهدوه و وجب عليهم النظر بأنفسهم في أمر رسول اللَّه صلّى اللَّه عليه و آله إذ كانت دلائله أوضح من أن يخفى و أشهر من أن لا يظهر لهم و كذلك عوام أمّتنا إذا عرفوا من فقهائهم الفسق الظاهر و العصبيّة الشديدة و التّكالب «2» على حطام الدنيا و حرامها و إهلاك من يتعصبون عليه و إن كان لإصلاح أمره مستحقاً و بالترفق بالبر و الإحسان على من تعصبوا له و إن كان للاذلال و الإهانة مستحقاً فمن قلّد من عوامنا مثل هؤلاء الفقهاء فهم مثل اليهود الذين ذمّهم اللَّه بالتقليد لفسقه فقهائهم فأما من كان من الفقهاء صائناً لنفسه حافظاً لدينه مخالفاً على هواه مطيعاً لأمر مولاه فللعوام أن يقلّدوه، و ذلك لا يكون الا بعض فقهاء الشيعة لا جميعهم فان من يركب من القبائح و الفواحش مراكب فسقة فقهاء العامّة فلا تقبلوا منهم عنا شيئاً و لا كرامة لهم. Any further material from Nur thaqalyn, Qummi, majma al bayan etc??? Thanks,
    • Don't let a bad day make you feel like you have a bad life. 
    • Call it blind luck or divine providence, but it just so happens that there is a sea of oil in the region around the Ka'aba, which keeps the drillers more than happy. Obviously no one strip mines oil, God made sure of that.
    • Native customs regarding care for the land are followed here by Christian and pagan alike. There is no conflict. We also have specific as well as general sacred sites. But....Big, little...sacred is sacred. Let's turn all of Mecca into an open-pit mine, starting with the Kaaba. It's just a place and who knows what resources are available? Why should it be special? I'm thinking a lot of Muslims would not be down with that, but I'd like to see the debate.
    • There is literally just the cube of the Ka'aba. And most of the time its religious significance is in the form of GPS co-ordinates. The rest are just socio-political-cultural constructs. We visit shrines as and when politics etc. allow the shrines to even stand, but at other times they may also be just locations, such as the Baqi cemetry in Medina. Certainly, there is no sanctity attached to large tracts of land. A bit ironic coming from a Catholic Indian.
    • ^ The settlers'  current life ways  , as now stands, are not sustainable. They are finding that out. The ways that were here before obviously were,even with challenges and occasional setbacks. We learned from that over thousands of years. And we are still here. They are failing and losing their belief systems, etc. Ours is undergoing revival. You can't fight weather and tectonic plates. That's the way this planet is set up. Learn to live with it without ruining your food and water supply....or die. How that happens in the future is the task.  The " value of land "depends on the attitudes of the people. How much are your holy sites worth to you? Should they be dug up and strip-mined by outsiders for " progress"?
    • If in the process the nation involved loses its people, its identity and the belief system that kept things that way, then while it is not for me to say whether it is stupid or not, it fails the survivability test. The irony is that ultimately it has no members around that care that they lost.  And it is not a one-way bet. As the people of Easter island found out. Similarly, there are other nations that are developing sustainable technologies and who will likely gain a competitive advantage over those who thought they did not need to. That's a symptom of the problem. Those settler types may well gain new knowledge of what your land could be worth and the more productive future uses to which it could be put, that you may not understand unless you went to the moon as well.
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